The clownfish is a fish from the bindweed family. It has a very expressive appearance and bright coloring. It refers to those representatives of marine flora and fauna, which they prefer to start in aquarium conditions. They can grow to quite large sizes, so you don't need a small aquarium. Also, fish breeders will have to take into account that they are very fond of a large number of shelters and various types of vegetation. In various literary sources, it is very often found under the name of macracanth.
The origin of the species and description
The first description of this bright and unusually beautiful fish in 1852 was compiled by the scientist and Dutch explorer Blecker. In 1852, he was on the territory of Indonesia and for a long time and very closely watched the fish. He described that the islands of Borneo and Sumatra are considered to be the birthplace of clowns. During the breeding season, they rise up and accumulate in large quantities in the mouths of the rivers.
Video: Botsia clown
They first appeared as aquarium fish in the 19th century. For a long period of time they were imported as aquarium inhabitants from Indonesia. To date, they are successfully bred in special nurseries, or in aquarium conditions. In 2004, Mauris Kottelat separated it from the genus Botius into a separate, independent genus. The name Makrakant comes from the ancient Greek language. Translated into Russian, it means “large spike”. This name is due to the presence of protective spikes, which are located in the infraorbital region.
In Russian, fish is often called simply a clown because of its bright and unusual color, as well as its mischievous and very fast, playful disposition. Fish quickly spread almost all over the world as inhabitants of the aquarium. They are turned on by whole families.
Appearance and features
Botsia clown is a beautiful, bright fish of a fairly large size. Its length reaches 30-40 centimeters. Under natural, natural conditions, it usually does not grow to such sizes. Under natural conditions, the size of her body does not exceed 25 centimeters.
Interesting fact: Among all fish, they are real centenarians. Their average life expectancy exceeds 20 years. The fish has a bright, rich orange color. Juveniles have a very bright and rich orange color. It gradually fades with age. Quite wide, black stripes run along the body. The first strip runs through the eyes of the fish. The second stripe goes in the region of the dorsal fin. The latter lies in front of the caudal fin.
The fish has a fairly large dorsal fin. It is usually dark, almost black in color. The lower fins are usually smaller in size, may be dark, may be colored red. The eyes of the fish are quite large. They are not protected by a skin film. The mouth is framed by several pairs of mustaches that point down. They perform a tactile function. The upper lip is noticeably larger than the lower lip, so it creates a feeling of downward direction of the oral cavity.
The scales of the fish are almost invisible. It is too small and almost hidden in the skin. Since fish lead a benthic lifestyle, they have many glands that open in the intestinal area and facilitate the movement of fish along the bottom with rich vegetation, stones, and snags. This ability of the body protects the body of fish from possible damage. Teeth are missing from the mouth. Instead, there is one row of numerous sharp teeth on the lower pharyngeal bones.
The fish also have spikes that are located under the eyes. They can be folded, or they can be in a straightened state. They perform a protective function.
Where does the clown fight live?
Historical the territory of Southeast Asia is considered the homeland of the fish.
Geographic regions of the macracanth fish habitat:
- Borneo Islands;
Under natural conditions, they are inhabitants of rivers of various sizes. They lead a predominantly sedentary lifestyle. During the spawning period, they usually migrate, but with its end they return to their usual habitats. Fish can inhabit rivers with still water, and where there is a current. During the monsoon period, they move to flat areas that are flooded by rivers. It can inhabit both very clean water bodies and at the same time those that are polluted.
Fish quickly adapt to new conditions of detention, including in an aquarium. They do not require special, time-consuming care. To create comfortable conditions, they will need a spacious aquarium, given that the fish grow up to 20-35 centimeters. It is better to count an aquarium on average for 3-6 individuals, since the clownfish likes to live in a group.
The volume of water per individual is 80-100 liters. The main criterion is the absence of nitrates and additional impurities in the water. The presence of nitrates can lead to the death of bright fish. One of the mandatory criteria is aeration and filtration, the water temperature is 25-28 degrees. It is best to cover the aquarium bottom with coarse sand, or a minimum fraction of gravel, since the clown boat loves to touch the bottom with its mustache.
There are also certain lighting requirements. It is best if it is diffused and somewhat muffled. When choosing vegetation, it is best to give preference to species with tough foliage so that they cannot eat them. It can be various types of water ferns, cryptocorynes, echinodorus, anibuas. It is advisable to cover the aquarium with a lid so that its inhabitants cannot jump out of it. The swimming bladder of the clown fight is divided into two parts by a kind of partition. The front part is enclosed in a bone capsule, the back part is practically absent.
Now you know everything about the content and compatibility of the clown fight. Let's see what you need to feed the fish.
What does the clown boat eat?
Macracanths are absolutely picky in terms of care and nutrition. They can be safely called omnivorous fish. When living in natural conditions, they prefer food of plant origin, as well as insects, larvae. It will not be difficult to keep them in aquarium conditions.
What serves as a food base:
- all kinds of live and frozen fish food;
larval forms of various insects.
The owner should take care of the cleanliness of the food, as the fish are quite sensitive to food, and can easily get sick or become infected with helminths. For reliability, live types of feed are recommended to be frozen and treated with a solution of potassium permanganate. However, one food of animal origin is not enough. Fish love a varied, balanced diet. As a supplement, you can add vegetables to the diet – zucchini, potatoes, cucumbers, lettuce, spinach, nettle or dandelion.
Plant foods – vegetables and herbs must first be scalded with boiling water. It is necessary to form a certain feeding regime, taking into account the fact that the greatest feeding activity in fish is observed at night. Under natural conditions, with a lack of a balanced diet, fish prey on snails, fry, shrimps.
Character and lifestyle features
Clown bots are not at all solitary fish, they live exclusively as part of a group, regardless of whether they live in natural conditions or in an aquarium. As part of a group, fish feel more comfortable and protected. Alone, they most often become overly shy, eat almost nothing, and most often die eventually.
If a fish lives alone in an aquarium without its relatives, it shows aggression unusual for it in relation to other representatives of the species. If a Makrakanta lives in a group, she demonstrates fun, joy and friendliness towards its other inhabitants. Owners of this type of fish note that they are characterized by some ingenuity, have a rather frisky character and simply adore all sorts of games. They tend to play hide and seek with each other.
It is noteworthy that the clown fight makes specific sounds that resemble clicks. Zoologists claim that these sounds are required to protect their territory or in the process of reproduction. When existing in aquarium conditions, similar sounds can be heard during their feeding. Despite the fact that the fish are considered bottom-dwelling, they can safely swim in a variety of layers of water, as well as in a variety of directions. Boring, slow-moving fish species are not suitable for fish as tankmates.
Social Structure and Reproduction
During the spawning season Under natural conditions, fish migrate to the mouths of the reservoirs in which they live. During this period, a huge number of fish accumulate there, and not only this species. According to statistics, about 3-4 dozen species of marine life gather in some rivers.
The process of reproduction occurs through the laying of eggs. Fish lay their eggs on the muddy bottom of the reservoir in which they live. Female individuals lay rather large eggs, the diameter of which is 3-4 mm. Fish do not emit any adhesive substances and fatty tissue along with caviar, therefore they have low buoyancy and quickly sink to the bottom. The caviar has a greenish tint, which performs a protective function and perfectly masks it among the vegetation of the seabed.
The incubation period at the optimum temperature, which is 27-28 degrees, is 20-23 hours. Clown fish are not very fertile compared to other types of fish. The average number of eggs is 3.5-5 thousand. From the eggs, fry appear, which grow quite quickly, develop and become similar to adults. In aquarium conditions, fish are bred extremely rarely. Several times they tried to breed them on an industrial scale, but these attempts were unsuccessful. In some countries, special farms have been created where clowns are bred and raised.
Natural enemies of the clown bot
Under natural conditions, fish have enemies who are not averse to feasting on bright, colored fish. These include various types of predators, which are larger in size than clown fights. They are also often hunted by aquatic birds. However, fish have a rather significant defense mechanism – sharp spikes. When danger appears, fish release spikes that can dangerously injure a predator. Cases are described when birds died from gastric perforation when pricked with sharp spikes of fish.
Fish are distinguished by a fairly strong and stable organism, subject to proper maintenance and a complete, balanced diet. However, there are a number of diseases that can cause the death of fish.
- fungal diseases;
- bacterial infections;
Signs of the most common pathology – ichthyophthyroidism are the appearance on the surface of the body of a white grain-like rash resembling semolina. The fish begin to itch on the pebbles, soil and various relief hills. They are lethargic and lack initiative.
If you do not pay attention to the symptoms and do not help these inhabitants of the aquarium, they will most likely die. Treatment consists in applying the method of hyperthermia – a gradual rise in the temperature of the water in the aquarium to 30 degrees. During the treatment period, it is required to change the water more often and carry out aeration.
Population and species status
At the moment, nothing threatens the population of clown fighting. Despite the fact that they are not distinguished by high fecundity, their numbers do not cause any concern. Fish are found in many water bodies. Due to the fact that they have developed skin and intestinal respiration, they may well be in water that is not enriched with oxygen. The number of populations remains stable due to the clowns' not picky about the conditions of detention.
They can feel quite comfortable in polluted water. The fish population does not suffer from this at all. In some countries, special farms have appeared in which these fish are bred and grown artificially. To stimulate spawning in artificial conditions, ichthyologists use hormonal drugs.
Another factor due to which the number of these representatives does not suffer is the body's resistance to various pathogens of a wide variety of diseases. In some regions, especially during the spawning period, fish are caught on an industrial scale. However, this type of catching does not have a significant effect on the total population size.
The clown bot can be an excellent option for aquarium pets. If you create optimal living conditions for them and properly take care of them, they will certainly give a lot of joy.