Drosophila fly

There are a huge number of different insects in the world. One of the most famous and widespread is the Drosophila fly. These tiny flies are familiar to absolutely everyone. Their appearance does not have to wait long if there is a bitten or slightly rotten fruit in the house. Even a few days is enough for a whole swarm of fruit flies to appear over a half-eaten peach or apple.

Origin of the species and description

Photo: Mukha Drosophila

Photo: Drosophila fly

Drosophila fly can start up in any home, and in vegetable or fruit warehouses, in stores, it is a permanent inhabitant. This animal is familiar to any gardener and gardener. Such a fly is quite annoying, it is extremely difficult to get rid of it. Despite this, fruit flies are highly valued by scientists. They are unique scientific material. Various experiments and scientific experiments are being done on this animal today.

Video: Drosophila fly

Drosophila fly is called differently: small drosophila, fruit fly, fruit midge, common drosophila. In Latin, the name sounds like Drosophila melanogaster. This is an insect with two wings, a species of midge belonging to the genus Drosophila. Drosophila belong to the large family of fruit flies.

Interesting fact: Fruit flies have many different names and nicknames. In the people, these insects are called wine or vinegar fly. This is due to the fact that they very quickly detect the source of the sour fruity smell. Therefore, there are many such animals in various factories and plants for the production of juices, making wine.

Today, there are quite a few varieties of fruit flies. Scientists have counted more than a thousand species. Most species live in subtropical and tropical climates. In particular, more than three hundred species of such an insect live on the Hawaiian Islands alone. On the territory of the Russian Federation, one type of flies is the most common – flightless Drosophila.

The Drosophila fly is characterized by the following features:

  • a diet consisting of fermented products;
  • high sensitivity to sour aromas;
  • fertility – one female throughout capable of laying several hundred eggs in her lifetime;
  • the presence of obvious visual differences between females and males.

Appearance and features

Photo: What a fruit fly looks like

Photo: What a fruit fly looks like

A fly Drosophila is called fruit because of its special relationship to vegetable and fruit waste. It is quite easy to recognize this insect.

It has certain characteristic external features:

  • small sizes. This is a tiny moth. The average length of an insect is about two millimeters. Moreover, the wings are always longer than the body. The female representatives are slightly larger. Their average length is two and a half millimeters;
  • bright and prominent eyes. Drosophila has bulging, red eyes. They are made up of many segments. Of course, it is problematic for a person to see them with the naked eye. It is possible to consider such a feature of this tiny insect only if it is greatly enlarged;
  • brown-yellow color of the body. Color may vary slightly between species — be lighter or darker;
  • bristle with pointed ends. This feature is characteristic of male flies;
  • rounded or cylindrical abdomen. Cylindrical abdomen is typical for males, and more rounded for females;
  • eight well-developed tergites in females. Males have only six of them, because two tergites are fused together;
  • the presence of strong chitinous plates. Despite their small size, these insects have a durable chitinous coating in the form of plates. Females have a greater number of such plates, and in male Drosophila, four platinum are not developed.

The external appearance of Drosophila flies depends not only on nature. It can vary depending on the climate, environmental characteristics and nutrition of the animal. It is also worth remembering that these insects are great travelers. They very often move from one country to another on fruits and vegetables. In this case, midges can slightly change their color, habits.

Where does the fruit fly live?

Photo: Drosophila fly in Russia

Photo: Drosophila fly in Russia

For the existence and reproduction of the Drosophila fly, certain conditions are necessary. This insect needs a warm climate. It does not live in countries with very cold winters and cool summers. Such midges need warmth, so they feel ideal in the tropics and subtropics. Drosophila flies are widespread where the air temperature does not fall below ten degrees Celsius every day.

For outdoor life, the Drosophila fly needs an air temperature of plus sixteen degrees. At a temperature of eighteen degrees, this insect can live for about a month. If the temperature regime is much higher (above 25 degrees), then life expectancy is reduced. However, fruit flies multiply rapidly in this climate. Also, the number of such animals increases sharply at high humidity. For this reason, tropical islands where it rains frequently have the highest populations of Drosophila flies.

Interesting fact: Drosophila flies are very tiny, but very hardy. They can exist in difficult environmental conditions. For this reason, they have always been and are now valuable objects of biological research. These animals have even been to space stations and ships.

This variety of fruit flies is widespread throughout the world. Drosophila fly is everywhere where vegetables and fruits grow, and it gets to other regions along with imported products. In large numbers, it lives in the south of Russia. More than three hundred species of such flies live in the Hawaiian Islands. Only the northern countries, where abnormally low temperatures persist throughout the year, can be excluded from the natural habitat.

What does the Drosophila fly eat?

Photo: Male Drosophila fly

Photo: Male Drosophila fly

Fruit flies, as noted earlier, are permanent residents of places where vegetables and fruits are stored. They are present in large quantities in large warehouses, vegetable stores, shops, and markets. And already from these places they get into residential buildings, restaurants and apartments. Drosophila flies find their food in these places.

The vinegar fly, which is no more than three millimeters long, has an excellent appetite. It feeds on plant sap, plant debris, rotting parts of fruits. In the larval stage of Drosophila, various microorganisms are also used. The diet of adult fruit flies includes: onions, potatoes, apples, nuts, cherries, grapes, pumpkins, cereals, jams, preserves, fruit compotes, and much more.

These products serve not only as food, but also as a breeding ground. In the presence of a suitable temperature regime and the appearance of fermentation products, Drosophila flies begin to actively multiply. It is extremely difficult to deal with such insects, especially in large warehouses, where it is difficult to find and eliminate all spoiled fruits or vegetables. At home, getting rid of annoying midges is easier. It is enough to deprive her of a food supply. You should constantly review vegetables, fruits, cereals, take out the garbage in a timely manner and often wash food storage containers.

Peculiarities of character and lifestyle

Photo: Drosophila fly in nature

Photo: Drosophila fly in nature

Fruit flies are annoying, fussy insects. Their life expectancy is short, so these midges are in a hurry to leave offspring as soon as possible. Wine midges live wherever there are fruits, vegetables, their leftovers, wine, jam and other food products. The whole life of these animals takes place in apartments, private houses, wine storages, various warehouses and shops.

The Drosophila fly is highly sensitive to fermented foods. If such appeared somewhere, then in the very near future we should expect the formation of a whole swarm of annoying midges. At the same time, flies live and breed regardless of the time of year. In addition to vinegar, fruit acids, decay products, these insects are attracted to high humidity. They often settle in flower pots, outdoor flowers and some ornamental crops. The reason for the appearance of midges is excessive watering of plants.

Interesting fact: Drosophila bring not only harm, but also great benefits to people. They are often used in various studies. For example, some human diseases are modeled with their help. In the course of such studies, about 61% of matches were found between diseases and the genetic code of an insect.

The rhythm of activity of Drosophila flies under natural conditions is with a period of about twenty-four hours. However, scientists found midges with an arbitrary rhythm of life – they moved, ate and rested at completely different intervals. Midges live for a very short time – no more than twenty days. Their life expectancy depends on many factors: environmental temperature, nutrition, insect species, humidity level.

Social structure and reproduction

Photo: Drosophila Insect

Photo: Drosophila Insect

The Drosophila fly is an insect with a short lifespan. At sixteen degrees above zero, such animals live only ten days. For this reason, their body develops very rapidly, female fruit flies are able to lay eggs literally immediately after birth – on the second or third day. The female midges are very prolific. They retain their ability to reproduce throughout their lives.

The female lays eggs directly on fruits, vegetables, and their remains. The eggs are very small. Their length is not more than 0.5 millimeters. They have an elongated shape. At one time, the female Drosophila is able to lay up to eighty eggs. And over a lifetime, the number of eggs laid by one individual can reach several hundred.

Interesting fact: Female Drosophila only needs one mating with a male to lay eggs several times. The fact is that this insect knows how to save seminal fluid for later use.

The development process and growth rate of the larvae depends on their diet. After birth, the larvae live on the surface of the fetus. They can live in a semi-liquid environment without drowning thanks to special float chambers. The length of one larva is usually three and a half millimeters. Their body color is white. Some time after birth, the larva pupates, and after four days an adult emerges from the pupa.

Natural enemies of Drosophila flies

Photo: What does a Drosophila fly look like

Photo: What a fruit fly looks like

Drosophila flies are very small insects that have very specific habitats. For this reason, they have practically no natural enemies. Under natural habitat conditions, such animals can only be attacked by spiders, some predatory beetles. Other predators, such as birds, may feed on their larvae. However, this happens extremely rarely.

Insectivorous plants can be called the natural enemy of Drosophila. They eat various flies and fruit flies are no exception. At the same time, Drosophila independently endanger themselves by flying directly to the enemy. They are attracted by a special aroma that is released by many insectivorous plants. Sometimes such plants are specially planted in the house in order to quickly get rid of annoying midges. Many varieties of such houseplants are very beautiful, easy to care for.

Also, the main enemy of Drosophila are people. Midges settle in food, near garbage cans, in flower pots. They are found in large numbers at vegetable bases, warehouses and even in stores. People try different ways to get rid of fruit flies. They use special sprays, carry out general cleaning, make fly traps according to folk recipes.

Interesting fact: Adult fruit flies do not harm humans. However, these insects are not so harmless. Their larvae, which enter the body with food, are capable of causing intestinal miasma.

Population and species status

Photo: Drosophila fly

Photo: Drosophila fly

The fruit fly family is one of the most numerous insects in the world. More than a thousand species of flies are already known to exist. The Drosophila fly is a very common species. Its habitat includes almost the entire planet, with the exception of areas where low air temperatures persist throughout the year. In some areas, this animal lives permanently, in others – it comes randomly along with imported food.

The Drosophila fly is an insect whose population does not cause any concern. It is stable and the animal is not threatened with extinction. This insect is numerous, multiplies rapidly and is able to adapt even to difficult living conditions. At one time, the female Drosophila fly lays more than fifty larvae. She continues to multiply until the very last day. During her short life, the female is able to lay several hundred eggs.

Drosophila larvae have a high survival rate, develop quickly and turn into an adult. All this allows this species of insects to maintain a high population. Even the deterioration of the general ecological situation and the use of various pesticides on the farm did not have a detrimental effect on such midges.

Fruit flies are one of the smallest and most famous insects on the planet. They multiply very quickly on rotting vegetables or fruits. It takes just a couple of days for a whole swarm of small, annoying fruit flies to appear above a bitten apple. Despite the sabotage, the Drosophila fly is an interesting insect that is definitely worth learning more about.

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