Goby is an amazing fish, so loved by the fishermen of the Azov and Black Seas. Indeed, this is a rather budgetary tasty fish, which is appreciated by every tourist. At the same time, few people know that there are many other different species that are no less popular and interesting for their features.
Species origin and description
The goby is a ray-finned fish of the perch family. For the first time she met a very long time ago in the Sea of u200bu200bAzov. It is believed that it is from there that the history of this type of marine life originates. Although exotic species do not arouse any interest among fishermen, nevertheless, the goby is rather an object of fishing. After all, there are many times more Black Sea and Azov gobies than populations of other species. The species of gobies is mainly determined by their habitat and appearance.
Today, the following main types of gobies are known:
- round timber.
It is interesting that exotic species are practically not usually considered when analyzing this category of fish. But all of the above are found in the basin of the Black and Azov Seas. These are common subspecies of gobies, which are commonly called ordinary. All of them are objects of fishery. There are practically no external differences between these species. The main difference is the size and slight differences in shades.
Interesting fact: In the city of Berdyansk, in the port area, there is a monument to a bull-breadwinner. This is due to the particularly active fishing industry in the area. Indeed, for many years, the locals mainly survived thanks to this fish.
Appearance and features
The goby in its external features does not belong to attractive fish in any way. But at the same time, it has several important distinguishing features that help not to confuse it with any other fish:
- from below, the fins grow together in such a way that they form a sucker. With its help, the goby can easily be attached to stones and other surfaces;
- a large mouth with large lips;
- the abundance of colors makes it sometimes difficult to recognize, but it is still possible to identify it by the previous parameters you can.
By itself, the goby is a little yellowish with dark spots. At the same time, now there is such an abundance of species that it is impossible for sure to universally single out any one color. Depending on the type of fish in question, its parameters also differ. In length, it can be from several centimeters to half a meter. Weight also varies from 30 grams to 1.5 kg.
The Azov goby, familiar to the majority of people, does not differ in particularly large sizes, and also has a grayish tint. But exotic species living in bright countries have a brighter color. The shades of the fins of the fish also differ. Mostly they are transparent, but there are all kinds of ebbs up to reddish. The fins cannot be called too large. But the head of a goby is quite massive for such a body.
Where does the goby live?
The goby lives in warm waters. In particularly cold climates, fish cannot survive. The Black and Azov Seas are the main habitats of the goby. The Caspian Sea, the Mediterranean Sea are also his favorite places. In smaller numbers, the goby is found in the Baltic. Also, fish can often be found in various estuaries.
In addition, some species of goby prefer fresh water. We are talking about rivers, their tributaries, lakes. Basically gobies are found in the basins of the Dnieper, Dniester, Danube, Volga. Gobies belong to the category of bottom fish. They lead a sedentary lifestyle, prefer to stay as close to the shore as possible at the bottom.
The goby is very leisurely. That is why it is not characterized by seasonal migrations, as well as active movements. Only on the eve of severe frosts does the fish move away from the shore and prefer to stick to the depths.
Gobies especially like to build minks in the sand at the bottom. They can also wait between rocks or in the mud – these are their favorite places where they feel most comfortable. Usually the goby prefers to build a hole in which 1-2 fish fit. But sometimes they can live in larger flocks. Depending on the type of goby, they can live in both fresh and sea water.
By the way, many people imagine the goby as a local fish. In fact, they live all over the world. It is difficult to find a place where gobies would not be found at all. You can meet a lot of exotic gobies at all. About a third of this species lives in corals.
What does a goby eat?
The bull is extremely slow. That is why it is not very comfortable for him to spend a lot of time hunting for other marine life. At the same time, he also does not seek to collect plant food. The bottom dweller becomes the solution for him. Among them, he chooses those that make a minimum of movements and do not move at high speed.
That is why the basis of the goby's diet is: small larvae, crustaceans, shrimps, worms, mollusks, and some types of fry. The goby tries to find those types of fry that, like him, do not lead an overly active lifestyle.
The goby is quite voracious and therefore spends quite a lot of time in search of food. He often tries to hide in thickets or behind stones and then sharply attack a shrimp passing by or any other inhabitant of the sea. The large mouth of the fish allows you to swallow the prey completely.
Some mistakenly believe that the goby is completely unpretentious in food. Indeed, he is not too picky, but at the same time he will not pick up garbage from the bottom. It is much easier for him to completely limit his diet than to actively hunt or eat anything.
Interesting fact: When bad weather rages, the goby does not go hunting and tries to minimize its food . Instead, he waits out the bad weather in peace and only then returns to his usual way of life.
Peculiarities of character and lifestyle
The goby is not a particularly active fish. He prefers to lead a sedentary sedentary lifestyle. Active migrations are not for him. Also, a goby cannot be called a schooling fish. He prefers to settle in small families. At the same time, even for spawning, the goby prefers not to go far, but to stick to its usual habitat, simply preparing the necessary place for this in advance, equipping a kind of house for spawning.
But there are still certain exceptions to the rules. Depending on the species, the goby may not approach the shores at all and even spawn in deep water. But other species that live in waters that are too fresh or salty may approach the shore for spawning or even enter the mouths of rivers.
In any case, it is not enough when the bull is ready to move. He prefers not to travel long distances, much less frequently. He also does not go hunting too actively, preferring to wait in ambush prey rather than pursue it. That is why gobies often have certain difficulties in this matter.
Also, the goby is not very friendly towards other fish, preferring to lead a lonely lifestyle. The most he's willing to do is live with members of his own species, and then in small numbers, not all the time.
Interesting fact: Bull hates temperature changes. In this case, he can easily fall into a stupor, stop not only hunting and eating, but even moving altogether.
Social structure and reproduction
The goby begins to spawn in the spring. In March, a protracted spawning period begins. It is enough for the temperature to rise to 10 degrees. After spawning will last until the very end of summer. Males are considered sexually mature in their second year of life. During spawning, they immediately change their color to a much darker one. After that, the male hides among the stones and begins to wait for the female, who will go to spawn.
If several gobies claim this place at once, then they can quite arrange real battles for the territory. It remains for the winner to equip a kind of nest, where the females are then lured. One male can attract several females at once. Depending on the type in question, a female can spawn up to 7,000 eggs at a time.
Caviar has a slightly sticky shell, with which it is securely fixed on the stones. It is interesting that immediately after spawning, the female can go about her business, while the male will guard his offspring for another month. Otherwise, there is a high risk of eggs being consumed by benthic invertebrates. Males do not easily protect their eggs from being eaten, but also take care of comfortable conditions for offspring. To provide the oxygen necessary for the eggs, they create intense streams of water with their fins, which just brings oxygen.
A month later, fry immediately appear from the larvae that emerge from the eggs. Bottom crustaceans are the main diet of babies during this period of time. But not for long at all. By the end of summer, gobies will be able to eat like any other adult fish. By the way, at this time, gobies are considered very noisy. To attract a female to his burrow, the male makes sounds similar to growling or champing.
Goby's natural enemies
The goby is very vulnerable to predatory fish. The main reason is that the fish is very slow and clumsy. If other species, having no protection against the enemy, have every chance of fleeing, then this option is excluded here. The goby swims extremely slowly, so he will not be able to escape.
Its advantage is only in color. The goby is very unremarkable in appearance (the bulk of the species) and it is not difficult for him to merge with the soil, stone. Pike perch, stellate sturgeon, sturgeon – this is a far from complete list of those predators who love to eat gobies. Also, the Azov dolphin does not refuse to eat gobies.
But the most interesting thing is that some species make their living by eating the fry of other gobies. But not only in the reservoir itself, the bull is in danger. Like many other fish, the goby often suffers from bird attacks. Herons actively hunt various types of gobies. Even snakes are ready to compete with herons.
At the same time, many agree that people remain the most dangerous for bulls. It is they who contribute more to the reduction of bullhead populations. Gobies are caught in every possible way imaginable. Weather conditions can also become dangerous for the goby, as these fish are very sensitive to them.
Population and species status
It can be quite problematic to objectively estimate the steer population. The main reason is that too many species of this fish are known today. That is why it is quite difficult to say in general how the population is estimated. In addition, gobies are distributed all over the world, so it is even impossible to estimate their number.
Tracking the population of a goby is a rather serious and important task. The reason is the increased industrial importance of this category of fish. That's why it's so important to control how much the population is declining. It is not possible to assess the population as a whole. The goby has a rather short life cycle. Against this background, the number of gobies can be called roughly undulating. Sometimes the change in quantity can reach hundreds of times.
Although there are quite a lot of gobies in Azov today, its catch is strictly controlled at the state level. For example, every year when fish goes to spawn, it is forbidden to catch them. Also at this time it is forbidden to drill the bottom, to carry out any work dangerous for fish. Although the Azov and Black Sea gobies officially belong to the category of fish that do not need protection. On the other hand, some species of exotic fish are so rare that special government programs are being developed to protect them.
The goby is an unusual and multifaceted fish in terms of evaluation. Its quantity and the need for protection directly depends on the species in question. This also applies to the region of residence. Often, at the mention of a goby, many represent the Azov or Black Sea, which are very numerous in these regions. This is not to say that even with abundant fishing, fish are under threat. The reason is that fish breed often and a lot. So the natural balance is not disturbed.
But there are also rarer species that should be under state protection. For example, the sculpin is listed in the Red Book, but only in some regions. Therefore, it is impossible to say exactly how the situation with this population as a whole is. Each region has the right to assess the situation specifically for itself, which is why in some places certain types of gobies are really recognized as rare.
no active reproduction. To increase the population of the missing species, it is enough just to start farming fish more actively in artificial conditions. At the same time, it should be noted that far from all species are the objects of fishing, therefore exotic gobies are usually completely protected from this.
Thus, the goby, although it is a very common fish, continues to actively increase its population. That small fish may well be both tasty and very beautiful – it all depends on the type in question. There are a lot of species today, ranging from the most common to truly exotic fish.