Robin bird

The robin bird has a small size and belongs to the order of passeriformes. In many countries of the world, it is a symbol of the sunrise. In various literary sources, it is found under a variety of names – dawn, alder. Small feathered creatures have an incredibly pleasant singing talent, which poets and writers admired in ancient times.

Origin of the species and description

Photo: Robin bird

Photo: Robin bird

The robin is a bird that is a representative of the chordate type, bird class, passerine order, flycatcher family, genus and species of robin. In the 1920s, the robin was very popular. In ancient Egypt, it was customary for members of a noble family to have these little songbirds in their homes. They perfectly adapt to living in captivity, have a sonorous melodious voice. Robins are distinguished by their friendly, accommodating nature and cheerful disposition.

Video: Robin bird

The tribes of the ancient Celts and Germans attributed alder to the messengers of the sun itself. Later, the birds were considered a symbol and messenger of the red-bearded Scandinavian god of thunder and storm Thor. People of that time believed that if birds built a nest near a human dwelling, they would certainly protect it from natural disasters – lightning, fire, floods, and other troubles. People considered the destruction of the nest to be unacceptable barbarism and even sometimes severely punished the destroyer.

Over time, birds became so popular that in the second half of the 19th century, postcards and postage stamps depicting birds became very common. It was during that period that a belief appeared that it was these little creatures who tried to save Jesus Christ crucified on the cross and extract thorny thorny branches from his body. People claimed that it was after this that they had a red spot on their chest, which symbolizes drops of the blood of Christ. At this time, they tried to artificially resettle birds in many countries and corners of the world. For example, in New Zealand and Australia, birds did not take root. In Britain, the robin is considered the unofficial symbol of the country.

Appearance and Features

Photo: What a robin bird looks like

Photo: What a robin bird looks like

Outwardly, the bird has much in common with sparrows. However, it is worth noting that it is more modest in size and significantly inferior to sparrows in size. The average body length of a bird is 11-13 centimeters. The wingspan is 18-21 centimeters. The weight of one adult individual ranges from only 18-25 grams. The birds have small, round eyes and a neat black beak. Sexual dimorphism is practically not expressed. Females and males have the same size and identical plumage color. The only difference is that in males the color is more pronounced than in females.

The following colors predominate in the color scheme of the bird color:

  • olive;
  • grey;
  • greenish;
  • brown;
  • brown;
  • orange.

The lower part of the body is painted in lighter colors – light gray, unobtrusive brown, honey tones. The upper body is darker in color. The chest area is painted in a bright orange color. A bright orange spot extends from the chest to the neck, and above, to the top of the head.

In birds that live in the southern regions, brighter and more saturated colors predominate in plumage. There is also an assumption that birds determine the age, sex of individuals, as well as readiness for mating by the variety of colors and their saturation. The chicks distinguish their parents among the birds scurrying around the nest by the color of their plumage, and when they approach, they open their beaks to get food. The legs of the birds are dark brown.

Where does the robin live?

Photo: Robin bird in Russia

Photo: Robin bird in Russia

The small songbird is quite common in various parts of Eurasia, as well as in small numbers on other continents.

Geographical regions of bird habitats

  • almost the entire territory of Europe;
  • Asia Minor;
  • the territory of Western Siberia;
  • some populations live in Algeria;
  • Tunisia;
  • Japan;
  • certain regions of China;
  • Canary Islands;
  • Turkey;
  • southern regions of the Crimean Peninsula;
  • northern regions of Iran ;
  • Caucasus;
  • southeastern regions of Azerbaijan.

Birds prefer deciduous, coniferous, or mixed forests as habitats. Forests can be located in different areas – both in the lowlands and on the hills. This species of birds feels most comfortable in areas with high humidity, not too dense vegetation and diverse flora and fauna. Birds can settle on shrubs, hedges, undergrowth, park areas. Of all the variety of trees, robins love alder and spruce the most. When choosing a habitat, they try to avoid young and light forests.

Those bird populations that live in southern latitudes are distinguished by the constancy of the region of residence. It is unusual for them to migrate to other areas. Birds that live to the north, with the onset of winter and the arrival of cold weather, go to warmer regions – Western Europe, some countries of Asia Minor, and the northern regions of the African continent. From the very first days of spring, robins return to their usual place.

Interesting fact: Males are the first to return from wintering. They hastily occupy empty nests, and after that female individuals join them.

Now you know where the robin bird is found. Let's see what it eats.

What does the robin eat?

Photo: Robin bird in flight

Photo: Robin bird in flight

Ration The diet of birds consists entirely of various types of insects. The diversity of the food base depends on the region where the birds live.

What serves as a food base for birds:

  • centipedes;
  • spiders;
  • beetles;
  • worms;
  • larvae of various insect species;
  • small molluscs;
  • midges;
  • flies.

Birds search for food parallel to the surface of the earth. They are not at all afraid of being close to people and are happy to feed themselves on what people bring in public gardens and city parks. In addition to insects, robins feed on seeds of various types of vegetation, ripe fruits, and berries. Among all berries, robins prefer blackberries, currants, elderberries, and currants. In the autumn-summer period, plant food occupies almost half of the diet of this representative of passeriformes.

Difficulties with finding food arise with the onset of cold weather. Birds begin to look for plant foods that will help them survive the cold. They safely fly to bird feeders. Often robins can be seen on the coast of non-freezing reservoirs. They are not afraid of water and can safely enter the reservoir if they have something to profit from in shallow water. Often robins keep close to large ungulates: wild boars, bears. These are mainly those animals that dig the ground. This helps the birds effortlessly collect insects where large animals have dug up the ground.

Peculiarities of character and lifestyle

Photo: Male robin bird

Photo: Male robin bird

Robins are not characterized by activity at certain times of the day. They are quite active during the day and after dark. The greatest activity is observed in the evening hours, when birds fly out in search of food an hour and a half before sunset. The robins return to the nest one to two hours after sunset. Birds spend the night most often alone in thickets of bushes or in the crowns of trees. With the onset of cold weather, birds that lead a sedentary lifestyle are looking for a suitable shelter in which to keep warm. It can be chicken coops, roofs of residential buildings, hollows of various trees. Birds that live near human settlements can bask in the light of lanterns and street lamps.

Robins are characterized by a love for water procedures. Often, for a large number of individuals, the morning begins with swimming in ponds. At dawn, robins clean their feathers in drops of morning or rain dew. Surprisingly, you can often see these little birds swimming in anthills. Such procedures help birds cleanse their own bodies of parasites. After that, songbirds love to soak up the rays of the warm sun. Robins take sunbaths, directly lying on the sand or sitting on the branches of trees and shrubs with an open beak. The day of these little birds ends the same way as it begins, with water procedures. In winter, birds often bathe in snowdrifts.

Robins are flocking birds. In flocks, as a rule, males predominate over females. Males that fail to find and form a pair do not occupy a certain territory and do not guard its borders. During the day, they spend time separately and hunt, and after dark they gather in bachelor communities and spend the night together. The number of individuals in such groups can reach 10-25. Each individual has a certain square or piece of land on which it hunts and obtains food. Most often, its area is 250-750 squares.

It is worth noting the vocal data of birds. Their trills are distinguished by different tonality, melody, loudness. Sometimes they resemble various tunes and motives. Especially melodic trills in the spring. Birds spend most of their lives on the surface of the earth. They hop on the ground with their wings down. They often wag their tails as well.

Social structure and reproduction

Photo: Robin bird on a branch

Photo: Robin bird on a branch

During one season, robins breed twice. Most often this happens in late April, early May, and the second time in July. If for some reason the birds have lost their offspring, they can breed it again in August. Females that are ready to mate purposefully fly into the territory of males. At the same time, the males begin to get nervous and angry. They protrude their chest forward, raise their head and tail, and importantly walk defiantly from side to side. At the same time, they sing loudly, loudly, trying to scare their guest.

Females are ready for such behavior of males. They begin to beg, tremble, press their tail to the ground, trying to arouse a feeling of pity in the owner. At the end of the demonstration of her helplessness, the female bows her head and goes to the nearby bushes. This performance is repeated for several days in a row. In the end, natural instinct takes over, and the male begins to enjoy the feeling of his strength and superiority. It is at this moment that, imperceptibly to himself, he finds himself in a marriage union with his guest.

Before laying eggs, the female builds a nest for herself. Most often, she does this in an inaccessible place on the surface of the earth or in the crown of trees. They can be located in the hollows of trees at a height of one and a half to two meters, in the cavities of large stumps. In appearance, the nest is like a real bowl. It has a diameter of 10-15 centimeters, and a depth of 5-7 centimeters. The inner surface of the nest is lined with down, feathers and foliage by a caring expectant mother. The outer surface is covered with moss, twigs and roots for camouflage. For one clutch, the female lays 4-6 white eggs with green or bluish specks. During the second laying period, the number of eggs laid is less than in the first. Two weeks later, chicks hatch from the eggs. During this period, the female does not leave her nest, and the male feeds his entire family.

The resulting offspring is absolutely helpless. The chicks are featherless. For two weeks, parents alternately warm their chicks and try to feed them enough. Then the chicks leave their nest and for another two weeks live in thickets of vegetation on the surface of the earth in full parental care. Chicks begin to fly a month after birth. After that, they are separated from their parents and lead an independent lifestyle. The chicks reach sexual maturity by one year, after which they breed their own offspring.

Robins' natural enemies

Photo: What a robin bird looks like

Photo: What a robin bird looks like

B In natural conditions, the robin has quite a few enemies. Due to their small size and defenselessness, small songbirds often fall prey to strong and large predators. A large number of helpless chicks die in the clutches of various predators.

Natural predators of robins:

  • magpies;
  • jackdaws;
  • ravens;
  • jays;
  • mice;
  • rats;
  • martens;
  • squirrels;
  • ferrets;
  • weasel;
  • ermine;
  • foxes;
  • cats.

Due to the fact that birds spend a lot of time on the surface of the earth, they have a fairly large number of enemies waiting for them there. Predators are especially dangerous for helpless chicks. Often, robins build nests low above the ground. In this regard, they become available to many predators. Birds often find them and drink eggs, destroy nests.

Man and his activities are also in some cases the cause of the destruction of birds and their nests. Chicks in park areas often die during grass mowing. Human development of ever larger territories contributes to the habitats of birds. Despite this, they are not afraid of humans at all.

Population and species status

Photo: Robin bird

Photo: Robin bird

Flycatchers are the most numerous and representatives of the passerine family. Scientists have estimated their number from 135 to 335 thousand individuals. The vast majority of populations live in Europe. To date, the population is not threatened. Despite the fact that birds have quite a lot of enemies in natural conditions and their nests are often ruined, and the chicks die, their numbers remain stable.

In many countries of the world, robins are kept and bred as pets. Voiced, melodic trills are the main advantage and dignity of birds. In addition, many choose them for their undemanding conditions of detention and friendly, playful character. Under natural conditions, birds breed chicks twice a year, so that the number of feathered singers remains stable. At home, with optimal maintenance, birds also multiply productively. In some cases, there is a significant increase in life expectancy.

The robin bird is a small, singing beauty. She is the owner of a sonorous and beautiful voice and is endowed with the ability to change the timbre and tone. Birds are great as pets.

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