Today, a large number of farmers breed Vietnamese piglets. This breed of Asian pigs has quite a few advantages. The Vietnamese pig grows to a large size, quickly gaining the necessary body weight, and also quickly adapts to new conditions of detention and does not require special care.
In Russia, this breed is not officially registered, however, many breeders and zoologists call it very promising. Researchers see many advantages in it compared to animals that are raised in our area. In addition to the fact that they are not demanding on the conditions of detention, they have a fairly stable and strong immunity and high quality meat. Another significant advantage is considered early puberty.
View origin and description
For the first time this breed of pigs was bred in the southeastern region of Asia about 200-250 years ago. They entered the territory of modern Europe and other countries of the world only in 1985. The breed got the name of the Vietnamese fold-bellied pigs due to the fact that they spread precisely from Vietnam. Pigs quickly spread not only in various countries of Europe and Asia, but also on the territory of other continents. They were especially loved by farmers and breeders of domestic animals in Europe and America. In countries such as Hungary and Canada, the world’s largest centers for breeding and improving the breed are open.
Modern zoologists strive to improve this breed of domestic pigs and therefore set themselves the following goals:
- bring a breed that can grow to a large size, therefore, can gain more weight in the same short time ;
- increase performance;
- increase lean body mass by reducing body fat.
Until now, zoologists have been trying to develop the ideal breed of domestic pigs that will meet all the requirements of modern farmers. Vietnamese piglets appeared on the territory of the Russian Federation not so long ago. The breeders of this living creature immediately decided that there were several varieties of this breed. However, they were wrong.
As it turned out later, this breed simply had several names. The full official name of the breed is the Asian herbivorous bellied pig. Vietnamese pigs became the ancestors of a new breed of pigs, which were called mini-pigs, which means “dwarf pigs” in translation.
Appearance and Features
The adult Vietnamese pig is quite large. It can weigh approximately 70-100 kilograms. Tribal individuals can gain body weight up to one and a half centners. The active period of weight gain lasts for the first five years. Gradually, as they grow older, this process slows down.
Video: Vietnamese pig
Males have rather long fangs. They begin to grow at the age of 6 months, and reach a length of 10-16 centimeters. This breed can have several colors.
Color options for this breed:
- black (the most common color);
- black and white;
Outwardly, animals resemble overweight, clumsy animals. They have a rather large belly, which sags almost to the ground. That is why pigs are called bellied pigs. The animals have a rather powerful body, a wide, well-developed sternum, a long, elongated back, short, strong limbs. The body of boars is covered with long, thick and coarse hair, especially in the area of the neck and head.
The head of the representatives of the breed is small in size relative to the size of the whole body. It is slightly flattened, shortened and in profile resembles the muzzle of a pug. There are sagging skin folds on the muzzle. The ears are small and protruding. It is noteworthy that in individuals of this breed, subcutaneous fat is practically not deposited. Thanks to this feature, pig meat is dietary, easily digestible with thin layers of fat.
Interesting fact: If choosing a piglet, you have an individual with similar features, but an elongated muzzle, this is not a purebred Vietnamese pig .
Where does the Vietnamese pig live?
The historical homeland of the Vietnamese pig is considered to be Vietnam and the countries of Southeast Asia. Animals feel great in the hot, dry climate of America and Asian countries. However, they are able to quickly adapt to the harsh cold climate of some European countries and Canada. Today, animals are distributed in various parts of the country.
Geographical regions of the habitat of pigs:
- Russian Federation;
At home, you should prepare and create suitable conditions for this. Arrangement of a place for keeping an animal must be organized taking into account the peculiarities of the climate in the region of their habitat. For breeding and maintenance, a pigsty, which is built of brick or wood, is best suited. The floor is best filled with concrete. This will make it easier to clean. In regions with cold, harsh winters, it is better to cover part of the floor with a wooden covering so that the animals do not freeze. If the room is too spacious, it can be divided into zones with wooden partitions. The pigsty should be dry, well ventilated and without drafts.
For this breed, the most optimal will be keeping in conditions where they can sometimes walk freely. In the warm season, they must be released to pastures, where there is green, juicy grass. Animals that do not have this opportunity will suffer from beriberi, will gain muscle mass more slowly.
What does a Vietnamese pig eat?
Most breeders of this breed make a big mistake in terms of food selection. They make up a menu that is completely identical to the diet of ordinary white pigs. This is a mistake that can lead to a lack of results, a lack of growth and weight gain. Not only the diet and the set of products differ, but also the frequency of feeding and meals. Representatives of this breed need not only two or three meals a day, but also constant, repeated feeding during the day. Little piglets have a small stomach that digests small amounts of food fairly quickly. Vietnamese pigs are considered herbivores, so the basis of their diet is food of plant origin.
What serves as a food base:
In addition to the above products, Vietnamese pigs need compound feed. Another significant criterion is that you should not feed animals. If you want to accumulate meat, not adipose tissue, the proportion of corn and grains should not exceed 10-15% of the diet. At a time when fresh, juicy herbs are running out, rice flour should be added to the diet, which must first be steamed with boiling water. In the cold season, you need to add legumes, grains and more hay to the diet.
Pigs also need clean water to drink. In summer, the need for liquids is reduced, as animals eat a lot of vegetables, fruits and juicy, green vegetation. Particular attention should be paid to the nutrition of newborn piglets. They need to be fed every 2.5-3 hours with fresh goat’s or cow’s milk. A single rate for the first 10-14 days is 20-30 grams. Then you can gradually increase the volume of one feeding. This diet is maintained for up to one month. Next, you need to gradually introduce complementary foods.
Now you know everything about feeding Vietnamese pigs. Let’s see how to properly care for and breed bellied piglets.
Character and lifestyle features
Representatives of this breed have a calm character, friendliness and friendliness. They perfectly adapt to various conditions of detention and quickly get used to the person. In addition to positive character traits, pigs have strong immunity, which helps them avoid many specific diseases that white pigs suffer from. Surprisingly, representatives of this breed practically do not squeal, do not bite, and in some cases are easy to train and train.
An interesting fact: Vietnamese pigs are naturally genetically programmed to distinguish between edible and non-edible grasses and vegetation.
For normal life, animals need only a pigsty, enough food and free grazing in the warm season. It is worth noting that they are afraid of cold, drafts and helminthic invasions. Representatives of this breed, unlike their relatives, are characterized by cleanliness. They clearly divide the available space into zones.
They will not defecate where there is a feeder or water. It is unusual for them to have such an unpleasant smell as white pigs. Vietnamese pigs do not have bad habits – they do not dig the ground, they do not drag a trough with food around the pigsty, scattering it everywhere.
Social structure and reproduction
Very great dignity representatives of this breed is considered to be high fecundity.
Interesting fact: One sexually mature female is capable of giving birth to up to 15-18 piglets at a time! Most often, 12-13 little piglets are born.
Animals in terms of choosing partners for mating are very picky, so there are usually no difficulties in the process of breeding Vietnamese piglets. During the breeding season, females become restless, their appetite decreases significantly. Females reach sexual maturity at the age of 4 months, males one and a half to two months later. When choosing a suitable pair, the owner must ensure that the individuals are not related.
When the female is about to give birth, the owner should watch her especially carefully, as she will need help in the process of giving birth. If the female’s nipples swell and her stomach drops, while she behaves restlessly, it means that piglets will be born soon. It is required to clean the pigsty, prepare water, hay, as well as iodine, cotton wool and scissors for cutting the umbilical cord. Help lies in the fact that in newborn piglets, remove mucus from the snout and mouth. Be sure to make sure that each of the newborns receives the first portion of maternal colostrum within an hour from the moment of birth.
After 2.5-3 weeks, newborn cubs must be fed, as the female is not able to feed a large number of piglets. When the piglets reach the age of one month, their diet should be gradually expanded. As the first feeding, it is better to use juicy, green types of vegetation, legumes, beets, water. Vietnamese pigs are considered very good, patient and caring mothers. Most often, at the first farrowing of a female, no more than 6-8 piglets are born to her. Subsequently, this figure increases.
Natural enemies of Vietnamese pigs
Most Vietnamese pigs live at home. However, wild pigs living in natural conditions have many enemies who will gladly feast on the tender, tasty and nutritious meat of animals.
Natural enemies of herbivores:
- red wolves;
- combed crocodiles.
In the old days, Vietnamese lop-bellied pigs were exterminated by the Vietnamese and used as objects of sacrifice. Crested crocodiles pose a particular danger to pigs, as herbivores daily come to the watering place, where bloodthirsty predators await them. In the wild, newborn piglets have more than once been hunted by large poisonous snakes, or large feathered predators.
At home, helminths, drafts and low temperatures are dangerous for pigs. In countries with a cold climate, care must be taken to ensure that during the cold season the optimum temperature is maintained in the pigsty, and the animals do not freeze. Antihelminthic drugs will help get rid of helminthic invasions. If piglets are kept at home without the possibility of free grazing, they will also suffer from beriberi, which can provoke some serious diseases.
Population and species status
Today Vietnamese bellied pigs are fairly common pets. They are successfully bred by farmers around the world. In some countries, breeding of these animals on an industrial scale has been established. The largest number of animals is concentrated in Hungary and Canada.
Scientists say that animals are very common in all corners of the earth, except for Antarctica. In different parts of the globe, they are present, both as pets and as feral populations. Pigs also quickly adapt to living in natural conditions. They are omnivores, so finding a source of food for them is not difficult. However, at the same time, they become a favorite object of hunting for many predators. Animal meat has a pleasant aroma and a very delicate taste. In this regard, it is difficult for pigs to survive in natural conditions.
The Vietnamese pig continues to conquer the world. Farmers around the world are finding more and more advantages in their maintenance and breeding. They note that they are very easy, not troublesome and cheap to maintain. In addition, pigs are very friendly and peaceful. They do not make noise and do not create any problems. High fertility, tender, tasty meat, which practically does not contain cholesterol, and disease resistance are the main advantages of the breed.